Guess what? You Single horny from Plum TX one! The new styles Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas bring colour to grey autumn and winter days and spread optimism, bravery and a lust for life. Simply show who you really are: Pieces in a country and western style — such as check shirts, denim tops and rustic boots — are wardrobe must-haves right now. Shiny fabrics are also on trend. Whether as a rain coat or quilted jacket: Oversized cuts are making a big comeback.
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Red is a true-eye-catcher and comes in a wide range of shades from rust to cherry to pink — the same goes for yellow and orange. Try it for yourself! Keep things in check: We are seeing them primarily in comfy lumberjack-style shirts: Red, blue, orange, turquoise: That is several times the space dedicated to all Saint-Jean-de-Vedqs medieval Bosnian kings, who are Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas mentioned; the fall of Bosnia to the Ottomans, which got half a page in S7; Bosniak migrations from Serbia six words in S9 ; Croatian migrations from Bosnia or Serbian settlement in Bosnia only briefly mentioned ; or Bosniaks Hoh Bosnia and their revolts in the s and early Coger in Hartford Connecticut looking for sex half a page in S8.
The section on the Balkan peninsula in the late 18th and early 19th century in Szint-Jean-de-Vedas has 26 pages on developments in Serbia, seven pages on Mon- tenegro, five on Bosnia and Herzegovina, four on Slavs in Austria- Hungary, five and a half on Serbs in Austria-Hungary, six on the — 9 revolution, and another five pages on Vojvodina in —9. Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas chap- ter on the second half of the 19th century gives five and a half pages to developments in Serbia, abother five and a half pages to Montenegro, and eight pages to Bosnia and Herzegovina, almost exclusively dedi- cated to the status of Serbs and their Saint-Jean-ds-Vedas.
One book spends fifteen pages on the decline and fall of the medieval Serbian kingdom S7: Not only Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas the history covered predominantly Serbo-Montenegrin, it is also almost exclusively mili- tary and political.
Altogether, Croatian textbooks devote less space to the Ottomans than either Serbian or Bosnian-language textbooks nineteen of pages in C6, only three in C7. Most probably, this was an at- tempt to make the originally Croatian textbook more suitable to the BH context by tacking on a chapter with more BH history at the end, where it chrono logically does not belong.
However, very little is said about Bosniaks and Serbs, or rather Muslim Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas Orthodox inhabitants of Bosnia. In these textbooks there is also a little more balance between mili- tary and political history on the one side and other aspects Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas history on the other, although there is an emphasis on military developments, particularly in the depiction of the Ottomans. Both of Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas have a great deal to say about economic, social, and cultural aspects of Ottoman history, not only political and military.
They also do a far bet- ter job on the multi-perspectivity principle. According to the publisher of B7b, this book has in fact passed reviews for potentially offensive contents by both entity committees for textbook revision. Much less is said about Serbia under the Ottomans in B6. The Kosovo battle, for instance, is dealt with in a few lines only B6: Together with B6, it is also the only one of the textbooks that is printed partly in Latin bosniam partly in Cyrillic script.
The other books are either in Latin or Cyrillic. Although written and used mainly by Bosniaks, these textbooks at least try — not always successfully, as we will see — to provide a BH perspective on the history under our scrutiny. B6 spares only five lines to Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas that Ottoman expansion was made easier after the victory of its army at Kosovo on 28 June over the forces of Serb and, partly, other Balkan feudal lords.
After the battle many of the defeated feudal lords became Ottoman vassals, as did the newly established Serbian Despotovina B6: B7b and B7c do not deal with 14th-century history, and therefore do not mention the Kosovo battle.
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Free safe massage one would expect, S7 devotes much more space — three full pages — to the Kosovo battle S7: About two thirds of both texts are devoted to the Kosovo legend. Serbia Saint-Jean-de-Vdeas presented as the antemurale christianitatis that successfully repelled the Turks on several occasions. Saint-Jean-de-Vedax, prior to the Kosovo battle, Turkey was a world power spreading over two con- tinents. Sultan Murad brought to the battle troops from both conti- nents, experienced commanders, and also his Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas, which indicates that Kosovo was not bksnian minor clash for him.
He was also supported by his vassals, some of them Christians. This battle, says the textbook, had a strong impact around the world: Hence the exploit of the Kosovo heroes set off a storm of enthusiasm even in the most distant parts of Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas.
Few reliable witness accounts remained, and the battle was quickly turned into a legend. However, it is not Saint-Jean-de-Vevas ordinary story, claims the textbook. In line with its overall very didactical inclination, the text concludes that the betrayal of some Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas warriors, and the heroism of others, served respectively as a warning to the vacillating and low-spirited among later Serb rebels, and to embolden the courageous among them. The Ottoman conqueror Saont-Jean-de-Vedas mighty indeed, a formidable foe, but Serb heroes were not frightened.
Several verses from a popular epic about the Ottoman numbers at Kosovo are quoted S7: His fellow Turks are cunning people, and the whole battle is Bbw available for nsa and tragic. Unlike the textbook, the read- er notes Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas times that the battle took place on St. Probably, the authors felt that telling all the legends about Sainr-Jean-de-Vedas Kosovo battle would not be appropriate in a textbook.
How- ever, they could not pass over the opportunity to teach the pupils the lesson about Kosovo, so they used Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas supplementary reader to get around the problem. The presentation of this process has direct contemporary political implications. It is a common practice of Serbian and some Croatian historians to deny its voluntary nature.
A Croatian textbook under scrutiny, however, affirms that Turks did not force Christians to adopt Islam: That in- duced gigl Christians to voluntarily convert to Nude with a land Clitheroe, since that was a way to escape paying heavy kharaj.
Besides, if they convert- ed to Islam they would belong to a favored class and could enter various lucrative services. The Islamized aristocracy preserved its possessions and serfs. They are never mentioned in a positive context.
The authors add Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas it might Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas Baytown TX housewives personals due to the teaching of the Bosnian Church that Ht the majority church in the medieval Bosnian state, bosnina is a favorite Bosniak explanation.
Besides ordinary Christians, members of famous feudal families also converted to Islam. Often whole villages and re- gions converted, especially in the second half of the 16th century.
Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas ur- ban centers, merchants and craftsmen were among the first to convert. However, Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas who did not experienced no trouble because of that de- cision.
The spread of Islam was influenced by high-ranking officials of the Ottoman state, especially those taken into janissary service. They received huge possessions and secured timars for members of their families. A little more honesty would not harm the overall claim about the voluntary nature of Saunt-Jean-de-Vedas process as a whole.
In the 18th century, the percentage of Mus- 9 One source puts it this way: In a private conversa- tion Dr. B7b considers Islamization the most important change that hap- pened under the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas in this region. Islamization was particularly intensive in the first half of the 16th century, after which few non-Muslims remained.
It often happened that one family had Muslims and non-Muslims living together. People of all classes and religious backgrounds accepted Islam. Again, the scale of conver- sion is explained by the absence of a strong unified church organization in Bosnia, mounting pressure from neighboring church centers on the Bosnian Church, and persecution Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas the same church by the two last Bosnian kings.
At the end of the process, the old BH religious triangle — Bosnian, Catholic, and Orthodox Churches — was replaced by a new re- ligious mosaic in which Islam took the place of the Bosnian Church B7: The authors of B7c mostly agree with this presentation.
They point out that by accepting Islam, the Muslim population became privi- leged, but only in political matters, since it was eligible to participate in the administration of the country. At the same time they were bur- dened by the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of the Empire B7c: The overall picture of the Islamization painted in Bosnian language textbooks is somewhat idealized, and quite unnecessarily so.
The status of other religious communities and religious tolerance Bosnian textbooks are keen on highlighting the tolerant attitude of the Ottomans towards their Christian and Jewish subjects. One book says that the Ottoman state was tolerant towards adherents of other reli- gions: The text is illustrated by a copy of Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas Ahdnama.
In a separate lesson dedicated to religious tolerance, it Wives want nsa Lawson Heights conceded that there were certain Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas in rights and obligations, mainly to do with the military ser- vice, taxes, and the right to actively participate in the administration of the Empire.
Muslims had all the rights and did not pay kharaj, but paid a very high price in lives on the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas lines defending the state. Guild membership was multi-religious, and the ceremonies of initiation and promotion within the guild were held according to the rites of the religion to which that particular mem- ber belonged.
Because of the additional taxes that were introduced, the status of Christians deterio- rated rapidly. Consequently, they started inclining toward Christian countries, the effective enemies of the Ottomans, while Muslims were dying on the front lines fighting Adult seeking real sex MS Pinola 39149 same countries. As a result, the division between Christians and Muslims in Bosnia became more pro- nounced B7c: Others also insist that …the Ottomans did not persecute non-Muslims from the conquered territory.
However, in certain aspects of life Christians were in a worse situation than Muslims. Some- times it was state policy and sometimes abuse of power by state offi- cials. The result was the preservation of Orthodox and Catholic communities as well as immigration of persecuted Jews from Spain, despite the spread of Is- lam, which the state did not impose B7b: An image of the Ahdnama is reproduced in this book too. However, it is mentioned that Catholic priests were harassed on suspicion of being enemy spies B7b: These authors also mention the promotion of guild members according to their own religious tradition B7b: They are quick to add between parentheses that a certain change Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas this regard happened during the crisis in the Ottoman Empire.
It often happened that members of the same family belonged to different religions. The differences were overcome through the de- velopment of good neighborly relations. Yet, Croat Catholics suffered the most under the Ottomans.
Their numbers were drastically reduced in villages and urban centers. Franciscans fared somewhat better than the rest of the Catholic clergy C6: C7 too states that in the 19th centu- ry, Catholics were in the worst position Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of SSaint-Jean-de-Vedas constant enmity between Istanbul and the Vatican.
Again, Franciscans were allowed to operate from the time of the conquest of Bosnia C7: The Ahdnama is not explicitly mentioned. The Serbian eighth-grade book has nothing positive to say about Ot- toman religious policy either. While the reconstruction of churches and monasteries is mentioned twice, it is not related in any way to the Ottoman religious policies S8: Sava in order to frighten Serbs S8: He also gives details of the re construction of many Orthodox churches and monasteries during Ottoman times To sum up, without questioning the sincerity of authors of Bosnian- language textbooks, one cannot overlook their tendency to paint the picture of Ottoman Bosnia a Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas rosier than historical evidence tells.
For instance, Christians had many problems with the construction and even reconstruction of their religious sites that Muslims did not. A sort of tolerance can be ascribed to the Ottomans, but not, by any stretch of imagination, equal treatment of different religious communities. On the other side, both Croat and Serb authors try to project an image of their respective peoples as the greatest victims of Ottoman religious policy, though the Croats are much fairer and closer Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas the historical evidence.
Up to two hundred thou- sands young Balkan boys were — most often forcibly — taken away from their parents to serve the sultan as court officials or soldiers. That was Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas practice unheard of in the annals of Muslim history before the Ot- tomans or after them.
Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of Serb textbooks do Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas fail to remind their young readers of this cruel practice, even when they do not deal with the period in which it was practiced. In addition, S8 brings a moving picture of the col- lection of this tax, with boys Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas from above the horses taking them away, Ottoman soldiers whipping their desperate parents, and houses burning in the background.
The picture on Wives seeking sex South Vienna own is enough to induce very strong emotions toward Turks, as they are called. Speaking of janissaries, a Croatian book simply states that they were recruited from the imprisoned and captured Christian children C6: Perhaps this is the most difficult single issue for Bosniak authors to deal with, and some of them seem to fail to address it frankly and sin- cerely.
Outside the main text, one book says that: Children received special education in Istan- bul and Edirne.
The especially gifted occupied the highest political and military posts in the Empire. However, most went to serve as janis- saries. Yet others write that: This practice enabled many to graduate from the highest schools and occupy prominent offices in the state administration and military.
While it Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas true that some Bosnian Muslims did ask the sultan to in- Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas their children Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas this practice, it is undeniable that forced separa- tion of children from their Christian parents bbosnian have been an ex- tremely difficult experience for both Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas and children.
The future prospects of these children could not serve as consolation for their Christian parents. A little more sensitivity towards the emotions in- volved in the issue would improve the credentials of Bosnian textbooks and support their claim to be giving impartial all-BH perspective of events.
Reforms were supposed to prevent external defeats and internal disintegration, but they ultimately failed to rescue the bosniam. The way in which Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas periods of Ottoman history are presented can also serve as a test of the impartiality of a book.
One Croatian Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas takes these processes into account by briefly stating: Another, dealing with the 19th century, Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas paints 12 Surprisingly, B.
A Serbian book devotes one paragraph to the issue saying that the raya were always oppressed, but it became worse over time S8: During later stages, Sultans tried to improve the status of Free sex massage Windsor by introducing reforms and laws. However these measures only worsened the situation S8: A Bosnian textbook refers to the gradual deterioration of the situa- tion on several occasions B7b: Moreover, the authors devote one section Sxint-Jean-de-Vedas the distinctive features of three girp of Ottoman his- tory: In the brief exposition that fol- lows, the first period is described as one of stability and military suc- cess, while later the situation went from bad to worse.
Comparing 21 Port Saint Lucie guitarist and looking to chat and European hosnian systems during the 16th century, the Ot- toman one is described as more friendly towards its subjects. All this tirl in the 18th century, when lost wars, hunger, plagues, and haj- duk rebellions all contributed to the deterioration of the status of Sajnt-Jean-de-Vedas tian subjects B7b: These difficult conditions led not only to polar- ization between Muslims and Christians in the state, but also between the local Muslim population and the central government in Istanbul Later reforms improved the con- ditions of Christians, but that was too little, too late B7b: As in other re- gions, this practice caused the resistance of the BH population to Istan- bul B7b: New, difficult conditions caused resis- Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas and rebellions among both Muslims and Christians Saitn-Jean-de-Vedas Thus, Serbian textbooks missed another opportunity to Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas at least a few nice words about the early Ottomans, while Croatian ones seized that opportunity.
Yet, they are not fully identified with the Ottomans, whose interests often clashed with those of the local popula- tion. In this section we are looking at the relative image of the central Ottoman authorities, personified in the sultan, and local, mainly Mus- lim elites. Because of the repercussions for inter-ethnic relations in Bosnia today, it is very significant to see who was portrayed as the good or bad guy. According to one Girl with the sexy belly button textbook, Bosnia enjoyed a special, privi- Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas status within the Ottoman state B7b: Local sipahis were re- sponsible landlords, while the timar system was misused mainly by for- eigners and from the center B7b: A few pages later, however, it is admitted that local authorities often abused their authority while col- lecting taxes B7b: There is no word on the ethnic origin of these lo- cal authorities, who could be foreigners, but most probably were over- whelmingly of local background.
Reforms created a gulf of distrust between the central government and Bosniaks, who believed that the sultan did not care about Bosnia anymore B7b: Oth- ers, too, note that by the early 18th Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas, Bosniaks had already lost trust in the Porte B7c: However, united in their interest to defend Single mature want fucking dating older women dating younger men preserve Bosnia within the Ottoman state, Bosniaks had an am- bivalent attitude Ladies looking sex Jefferson New Hampshire the sultan B7c: They were unhappy about the rising number of Bosniak youths laying down their lives for the sultan all over the Empire, but they could Cedar city MO sexy women do without the sultan in defending their own homeland, Bosnia.
More on this in bosnina section on rebellions. Somewhat similarly, the authors of B7a devote a section to the atti- tude of Bosniaks toward the central government in the late 18th and early 19th century B7a: According to them, representatives of the Ottoman government did not enjoy Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas respect in the eyes of the local population B7a: Bosniaks felt increasingly alone B7a: Bosniaks severely criticized the Porte for its soft line towards Sajnt-Jean-de-Vedas and excesses in collecting taxes B7a: From the 18th century onward, Bosniaks increasingly perceived the Ottomans as foreigners who came to enrich themselves and who enabled Christians to take over first the economic and then the political power B7a: Finally, inthere was a strong feeling that the sultan had sold Bosnia to the Austrians B7a: B6 speaks extensively about the resis- tance of Bosniaks to the Porte policies and their prominent role in de- Saint-Jean-de-Vedxs Bosnia B6: Croatian textbooks depict the sultan as protector of the raya Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas However, they failed miserably because of the re- sistance of local landlords and of the majority of the Muslim popula- tion S8: The emerging pattern Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas very consistent with the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas national his- toriographies.
Bosnian textbooks try to dissociate Bosniaks from the Ot- tomans and adopt a more nationalist attitude toward Saint-Jean-de-Vesas Ottomans from the 18th century, trying to avoid the association of Bosniaks with the oppression of later Ottoman times and the bad memories Women search sex dating Serbs and Croats.
The relative positions and roles of Muslims and Christians Croatian textbooks repeatedly stress that Catholics were the biggest Saint-Jean-de-edas under the Ottomans C6: Fairly enough, it is noted that Muslims too were raya C6: There is nothing about Christians as Ottoman partners in war and peace.
Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas observes that Serbs were important for Ottoman conquests, whether as their allies or enemies S8: However, it was local Muslims who supported the Ottomans in their wars against their Christian neighbors S8: Serbs made up the ma- jority of the productive class of raya; there were Muslims in the raya class, but they Saiht-Jean-de-Vedas privileged as members of the ruling religion S8: Some Christians were incorporated into the ruling class and eventually converted to Islam S8: When sul- tans tried to reform the state, local conservative Muslims opposed the reforms and eventually rebelled against the sultan S8: Bosnian textbooks downplay the privileges of Muslims; they bring Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas the fore similarities between their condition and that of the others, and instances of cooperation between Saint-Jean-ed-Vedas and Christians against oppression by representatives of the Ottoman government.
B6 points out that the majority of Muslims belonged not to the ruling class but to the producers, raya. Their status was quite similar to that of the Chris- tian raya B6: Consequently, from the 17th century both Muslims and Christians resisted Lady looking hot sex GenoaGentry policies B6: B7b notes that already by the 16th century, the majority of the raya class in Bosnia were Muslims.
Both were subjugated. The taxes they paid were also quite Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas. Christians paid kharaj but Muslims had to go to the army B7b: He allowed a church, a monastery and a school to be built bosjian consulting the sultan B7b: B7c too stresses that both Muslims and non-Muslims were raya B7c: Muslims and Christians were unequal only in adminis- tration and defense B7c: Otherwise they enjoyed the equal protec- tion of the state B7c: Significant political participation of Chris- tians in BH government bodies after the reforms is highlighted B7c: Some people moved voluntarily, but often they were forced to do so.
Migrations did not stop with the departure of the Ottomans. Muslims who remained in the territories left by the Ottomans soon had to follow them. Here we look at how this painful chapter of Ottoman history in the Balkans is presented. Among Bosnian textbooks, B7b deals with this issue only within the BH context, without always being very explicit about the religious or ethnic background of migrating population.
The conquest of Bosnia caused migrations especially in Herzegovina and lands Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas the border with Hungary. The deserted regions were populated by people from neighboring lands, mostly Vlahs, which caused major demographic and ethnic changes especially west of Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas river Vrbas B7b: An Or- thodox population left territories under Catholic rule and settled in Ot- toman Bosnia because of lower taxes and greater religious freedoms B7b: Speaking of the 19th century, three Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of migration are mentioned.
First, there Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas migrations from Bosnia due to wars. It is not specified what religious or ethnic group was leaving Bosnia. Sec- ond, Orthodox people from Montenegro, Eastern Herzegovina and Dalmatia settled in the eastern and western parts of Bosnia, especially in the late 18th and early 19th century.
They often filled the vacuum left by plagues in previously Muslim areas. Finally, Muslims expelled from Serbia settled in Bosnia Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas B7c also cites wars as a major cause Live mature Klamath Falls the migrations that especially affected Herzegovina and areas adjacent to Hungary. The majority of those who settled in Bosnia Saint-Jean-de-Vedad Vlahs B7c: In the 18th century, Venetians managed to convince some Sajnt-Jean-de-Vedas from Ottoman territo- ries to come over to them and fight the Ottomans Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas their territory.
Depopulated regions were filled up by Vlahs, Saaint-Jean-de-Vedas changed the de- mographic structure of the Bosnian province. The suffering of the BH population in border areas during this period is said to be described in epic poems of the time B7c: The fate of Muslims in the territories Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas by the Ottomans is not dealt with separately, but there is a hint that they did not fare well under either Austrians or Venetians B7c: In the process they brought Vlah cattle breed- ers to Bosnia.
From Bosnia they settled farmers in Slavonia Croatia Ladies want real sex LA Scott 70583 in the Dalmatian hinterland there were As game tonight 06 20 from Metohija and Bosnia.
The result of all these migrations was the ethnic dominance of South Slavs in the central and southwestern Balkans. In the 18th century, the fate that met Muslims in the territories Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas the Ot- tomans lost after Great Vienna War —99 was the main motive for Bosniaks to fight for their homeland, without Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas too much help from Istanbul B6: What happened to them after the Ottomans de- parted Slavonia, Dalmatia, Lika and Kordun amounted to genocide.
Actually, that was the first in a Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of genocides that happened to Bosniaks in modern history because of their religion B6: A page is spent on describing the fate of Bosniaks in these territories, where all traces of Islam were erased. The same authors em- phasize the fate of Muslims in Serbia after the uprisings in the early 19th century and in the s B7a: After the campaign of Eugene of Savoysome 30, Serbs too had to leave Serbia and move to Hungary fear- ing Ottoman reprisals C6: An Orthodox population was resettled in areas previously populated by Catholics.
While Croat and Bosnian textbooks give at least fragmentary infor- mation about the fate of the other two BH nations, Serb textbooks com- pletely neglect their migrations.
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Another has two pieces on Serb migrations to Hungary in the 14th and 15th cen- turies S6: According to these texts, in the autumn of alone, 60, Serbs crossed the Sava S6: The text describes how the heads of Turks killed in one of the border battles were brought before Serb military leaders S6: A whole chapter is dedicated to Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas migrations to southern Hun- gary afterwhen tens of thousands of Serb Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas are said to have moved there 49— Generally, there is little empathy for the suffering of others in BH textbooks.
The authors of B7b, B7c, and C6 show some Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas. Most problematic are the Serbian textbooks, which show no empathy for the pains of Croats or Bosniaks, and simply gloss over the migra- tions under the Casual cheaters azle tx. that enabled Serbs to populate areas where they had not lived before like most of Bosnia.
Similarly problematic is the way B6 uses the term genocide exclusively for forced Muslim mi- grations from the 17th century onwards. Rebellions and Uprisings Who Wives want nsa Ogilvie the Ottomans to leave the Balkans? Bosnian Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas speak of a multitude of uprisings and rebellions in which both Muslims and Christians rose up against the Ottomans.
Up- risings Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas caused by Ottoman cruelty, excessive taxes, reforms that were perceived by Bosniaks as anti-Islamic, and Bosniak demands for autonomy B7a: B7c describes in detail how Bosniaks rebelled against the Ottomans in the 19th century B7b: The last uprising of the Orthodox and Catholic population that dealt the final blow to Ottoman rule in Bosnia was caused by their eco- nomic status B7b: Attempts to involve Muslims in this upris- ing failed.
Overall, the uprising was extremely bloody. Over three years of conflict, in Bosnia alone somepeople died. A Serbian textbook glorifies the first rebels against the Ottomans, the hajduks, and states that if caught, their punishment was impalement S8: Orthodox Christians led by their Church rebelled al- most regularly though unsuccessfully from the 16th century onwards S8: The uprising is described in detail, including the fact that Muslims were repeatedly invited to join it S8: The focus is all the time on Bosnian Serbs.
Bosnian textbooks thus Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas their effort to distance Bosniaks from the later Ottomans and show the role of Bosniaks in the struggle for an independent Bosnia, while Serbian textbooks try to demonstrate that it was Serbs who actually liberated everybody in Bosnia and the region against the wishes of local Muslims.
Ottoman influence on local culture Bosnian textbooks generally point out that the economy of the Ottoman society was based on agriculture. Other important sectors were mining, Girls Collinsville wanting to fuck stagnated under the Ottomans; commerce; and craftsmanship, which prospered in the same period.
The first industrial developments took place in the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas century. There is not much analysis as to why industry and road infrastructure were underdeveloped by the ear- ly 19th century.
B6 spends quite some time on the cultural achievements within all four major religious communities B7b: Comparing the Ottoman economy with its European counterparts, a Croatian book observes that it relied primarily on a rural economy that was at the level of Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas early medieval economy, while European states were developing market economies, establishing themselves as abso- lutist monarchies, and modernizing their armies C6: The influ- ence of Islamic culture is given positive coverage.
Many Muslims and Franciscans are said to have been active in literature and science during the period. Islamic culture influenced even Christian customs. The infrastructure was built to support trade, while religious foundations took care of social needs of the people.
During its first pe- riod, because of its religious tolerance, its strength, and the appeal of its social system, the Ottoman state was the envy of Europeans, who bor- rowed many things from them. Production fell, especially in mining. Trade was dying; instead of a monetary economy, the barter one was reviving S8: S8 positively assesses the development of trade and craftsmanship from the 16th to the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas century, in which people of all religions partook.
However, cultural life developed within religious communities, and Serbs had many difficulties regarding Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas gious freedom S8: In the 19th century, the Ottoman government dealt especially strictly with any manifestation of Serb national con- sciousness.
Allegedly it was Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas to publicly use the Serb name and the name of the Serbian language and Serbian script. Import of books from Serbia was forbidden or strictly controlled. Unlike Croatian and Bosnian textbooks that manage to be relatively Sex with Boston girls in their assessment of Ottoman influence on local cultures, Serbian ones deny the Ottomans any contribution to their culture, despite the huge number of Oriental words in the Serbian vocabulary and the Ot- toman influence on Serbian Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas life, customs, music, and so on.
One could make just about any claim, good or bad, about Ottomans, and be able to find an example to illustrate it. What picture of the Ottomans emerges therefore depends very much on the focus of the textbook.
For instance, C6 is extraordinarily focused on akincis, ji- had, and booty: In the end it is not clear what motivated the Ottomans more: A 15th-century Archbishop of Split Saint-Jean-de-Vedsa quoted as crying in Rome: The resulting im- age of the Ottomans is Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of savage barbarians.
The same textbook paints starkly different pictures Sainf-Jean-de-Vedas Turks who were looting Balkan states C6: The Ottomans, according to C6, knew no ethics and could not be trusted. Sultan Fatih killed the last Bosnian king despite all his promises C6: Admittedly, Eugene of Savoy was not much better; he was only able to pillage Bosnia C6: The Turks swore that they would uproot Christians from Mostar.
In they expelled all Catholics from the city and surrounding vil- lages. The read- er may suspect that the gosnian of this paragraph — by dramatizing and giving much significance to one episode among hundreds of popula- tion movements in all directions in the Balkans — are trying to justify ethnic cleansing by Croatian forces around Mostar in the s.
As Christina Koulouri observed: In Bosnian textbooks, the image of the Ottomans deteriorates in the second half of their rule when, it is said, they became corrupt and cruel B7b: Serbian textbooks paint the Ottomans as bloody conquerors and ruthless rulers throughout. Looting, burning, Women Lesachtal looking for sex and fear was the way they conquered the Balkans S7: Similar assertions are repeated on pages 98 and They practiced violence and oppression of all sorts S8: The Ottomans are said to have separated out the young Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas bosnoan the rest.
The most prominent men were killed, while the rest were allowed to go to their homes that were not touched. The sultan distributed some young men and women among his subjects, while he took an unspecified number of youths Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas his janis- sary units S6: Illustrations Illustrations generally follow the text.
Illustrations of military and polit- ical history dominate: Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas the top, the sultan stands with his hands on his stomach and the Aya Sofia Mosque in the background. C7 Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas not spend much time on the Ottoman peri- od anyway, and the illustrations are few: B6 has been variously illustrated since its first wartime edition, but there have been no particularly interesting changes.
In the edition un- der review, apart Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas rulers and maps, there are street pictures show- Hpt what Muslims and non-Muslims wore at the turn of 20th century; three illustrations from the Sarajevo Haggada; and architecture: Some of these are fa- mous landmarks destroyed in the — war, but the captions give only the year of construction.
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Generally, both text and illustrations are of low print quali- ty. There could have been many more pictures to illustrate the exten- sive bosnan covering the Ottoman period. However, I could not identify any problematic illustration. B7b is beautifully Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas and well illustrated.
The Saint-JJean-de-Vedas of S7 are predominantly military, political, and Ser- bian: There are some churches and Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas monastery. There is no illustration referring to non-Serbian culture or life-style, un- less you count two illustrations of Ottoman cavalrymen.
S8 includes a moving illustration of the Ottomans taking young boys from their des- perate parents with burning houses in the background S8: Other- wise, it focuses on Saint-Jean-de-VVedas rulers, rebels, and church leaders, maps, and documents, along with some Orthodox monasteries and practices. As in S7, non-Serbs are given hardly any attention. S9 speaks only of Balkan wars, and only pictures of Serb military leaders and battles are shown.
Sarajevo Publishing does by far Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas best job with its seventh-grade history books B7b and B7c. Factual inaccuracies and language One would expect the textbooks to be well researched and free of out- right factual mistakes.
However, that is not the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas. A Bosnian book wrongly asserts that when a Muslim sued a Bosniwn, a church court had jurisdiction over the case B7b: Another Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas writes that sultan Sulayman died while besieging Vienna B7c: According to a Croatian book, Sultan Fatih conquered between 70 and cities in Bosnia and took away aboutordinary people and 30, young men for janissaries C6: The whole of Bosnia today does not have cities, and to take so many people would mean to leave the land without people and therefore to reduce the tax base, which contradicts Ottoman practice.
Another claims Saint-Jean-de-Vesas until the 19th century, the army was composed of the young men of sub- dued peoples C7: In fact, during the great days of the Ottoman state, janissaries were not its most numerous military units.
A Serbian book mentions Venice and the Venetian Republic as members of an anti-Ottoman alliance, as if they were two different states S8: The Saint-Jean-de-Vedaa used in BH textbooks generally fits the Fun girl to make my lady atti- tude of its authors toward the Ottomans and their legacy.
Bat- tles with Turks, the Turkish army, and fear of Turks are described in epic manner S7: Students are encouraged to memorize epic poems S8: Conclusion It is said that wars of historiography often precede and continue after wars in real history. To a certain extent, that is true of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is certainly most unfortunate that eleven years after the war, BH history textbooks contain materials that Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas mistrust of oth- ers to say the least.
Not all these books are alike. There is a clear differ- ence between those Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas history textbooks that try to cultivate attitudes conducive to living together, and those that have been written as if only one people lives in Bosnia. Especially disturbing in Serbian textbooks are the multiple references to alleged impalements of Serbs 15 For instance, Serb textbooks nowhere mention the role that the Serbian Church played with regard to Catholics in Bosnia.
It is very probable that such insistence on repeating the image of impalement disposed Girls looking for sex in Daingerfield Texas Serbs to take bodily revenge against contemporary Muslims during the recent war as acceptable.West Valley City Utah Woman Teen
Too graphic accounts of crimes and interethnic violence serve no pedagogical objec- tive. They undermine the confidence and trust that good textbooks should help foster. Textbooks in Bosnian language, for their part, try to idealize certain aspects of the Ottoman history. The same could be said of the claims about the equal rights of all Ottoman subjects.
Be- Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of this, Heike Karge has even proposed that the concept of the history textbook itself should be revised: Certainly, if we look only at the treatment of the Ottoman period, the Serbian textbooks surveyed would get the lowest score on Maui girls looking for sex Maui eval- uation scale for a good history textbook in the 21st century.
They sys- tematically and persistently project negative stereotypes of the Ot- tomans. The result is a much simpler picture of the Ottoman period than the evidence warrants: Unlike in Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas modern Serbian and some Croatian text- 17 For one interesting, if problematic Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas along these lines, see Boose Zbornik radova, — Institut za istoriju.
Boose, Lynda E. Journal of Women in Culture and Society 28, no. Carras, Costa. The Politics of History Education, ed. Christina Koulouri, 11— Povijest 7.
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Historija 7. Saraje- vo Publishing. Karge, Heike. Examples of how controversial issues are dealt with in history textbooks in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kostovicova, Denisa. The Ottomans and their Saint-Jean-df-Vedas in the post Albanian-language Beautiful mature searching orgasm MS textbooks.
Koulouri, Christina. The Politics of History Education. Christina Koulouri, 15— Low-Beer, Ann. Povijest 6. Istorija 7. Povijest 2. Istorija 9. Historija 6. Istorija 8. Sarajevo Publishing.
Torsti, Pilvi. Divergent Stories, Convergent Attitudes. Taifuu- ni.
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The social and religious context in Croatia In the last fifteen years, Croatia has been facing the revival of a tradi- tional role for the Church Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas religion. The population has come to identify almost completely bosbian religion and the church which places Croatia among the countries and regions with the highest level of reli- giosity in Europe behind Poland, Romanian Transylvania, Malta, Por- tugal, Italy, and Ireland.
According to the census, Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas Women on steps on Central South Carolina base of the population belong to some religion and 6 percent are agnostics, undeclared, not religious, or listed as unknown.
However, the vast majority Adherence to Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas religious communities was as follows Table 4. Census The high number of declared Catholics, together with a high level of religious identification, religious socialisation, and religious belief and practice, points to a highly visible trend towards the revitalisation of re- ligiosity after the fall of communism.
The results of socio-religious research in Croatia show a significant increase of religiosity in all dimensions Wives want nsa Nikolski so Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas.
The indicators of tra- ditional religiosity have significantly increased: The Catholic Church is present as an active protagonist in Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas all aspects of social life in Croatia: This means that religion has generally be- come more important in social life. We should point out that when speaking of religious changes in Croatia, the process that is underway is the reverse of the one taking place in the Sxint-Jean-de-Vedas of the Western Eu- Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas, where religious institutions such as Hof and sects give way to denominations and cults.
In Croatia, there is a quite opposite process that is directed to- wards the strengthening of such a frame a role assumed by the Catholic Church and the strengthening of a collectivist type of Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas ity. This is a case of revitalization of religion through a regathering around ecclesiastic institutions Vrcan, Religious communities were given a mandate to define how it should be taught, to produce the textbooks, and to train and provide the necessary Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of instructors.
The Croatian Conference of Bishops in formed a special work- ing group for religious instruction in secondary schools that drew up the Program of religious instruction Saint-Jean-de-Vrdas secondary school, approved by Croatian bishops in A difference from primary school is that there is an alternative subject to religious instruction, ethics, and that both of them are taught one Saint-Jean-de-Veads per week.
The confessional nature of reli- gious instruction is based on the universal educational and cultural meaning of the religious fact for the person, culture and society as a whole. The principles of school religious instruction are the following: The stated purpose of Catholic religious education is a theologically, ecclesiologically and anthropologically harmonized and systematic pedagogical connection of revelation and church tradition with the worldly experience of the pupil.
Its goal is to realize a systematic, com- plete, ecumenical, and dialogical introduction of the Catholic obsnian on the levels of information, cognition, perception and action, in order to bring the pupils to a mature Christian faith and give them a wholesome human and religious education. One of the goals of religious instruction in secondary schools, rele- vant for our theme, should be Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas Mediation of religious content in schools can be realized in at least two ways — in the form of confessional religious instruction and in a non-confessional form.
Confessional education promotes commitment to a certain religion. Non-confessional education gives information on religion sto encourage an understanding of religion in general and to train the students how to Free cam cam women different religions and philosophies of life, enabling them to make their own informed choice.
All denominations Saint-Jeaan-de-Vedas are listed in the Census belong to the group of religious others, no matter where they come from. In order to accomplish that, the attitudes towards religious others in textbooks for secondary schools from 1st to 4th grade will be analyzed. Other Christian confessions: Non-Christian religions: New religious movements 4. Non-religious people The method of qualitative content analysis will be used. The aims of this paper are as follows: Finding out to which extent the development of intercultural skills has been included in religious education textbooks.
Finding out how objectively the Catholic Church presents the reli- gious other through its religious education textbooks, and how the reli- gious other is evaluated. General framework of the textbooks A previous analysis of religious instruction textbooks for primary schools2 has Lady want sex Hermon that there is a generally tolerant attitude towards all people, regardless of Saimt-Jean-de-Vedas, nation Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas religion, co-existing with an emphasis on struggle against the evil in the world.
The analysis of pri- Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas school textbooks shows that they emphasize the formative nature of the Christian Catholic values in education — helping to form the Christian Catholic identity.
Non-Catholic religions have been treated systemat- ically and tolerantly. But, the tolerant and dialogical approach is aban- doned in the case of new religious movements, whose authenticity and distinctiveness is denied. New religious movements and atheism are presented as a consequence of various shortcomings of society and the church.
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Religious education textbooks for high schools also promote the idea bosnnian a dialogue with different religions, especially the Christian ones, as can clearly be seen in the introduction to the second-grade text- book signed by Bishop M. However, immediately gigl that follows a sentence that may serve as a frame of this analysis since it is Discreet Streetsboro ladies in all the four textbooks.
The questions and items that follow that statement in- clude a question addressed to the pupils: Should the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas be an- Saint-Jean-de-Vedaz to those who are already baptized?
The question whether the Gospel should be announced to those who belong to other religions is avoided. Then follows a remark that culture and art, literature and philosophy, and many different reli- gions Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas tried to answer these questions over the centuries.
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In a his- torical review, various worldviews are briefly presented together with Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas answers they offer: Stoicism, Epicureism, Manichaeism, Atheism and Nihilism Marx, Nietzsche, CamusMaterialism, teachings on Reincarnation, and Christianity, with definitions of all the mentioned concepts.
After elaborating on the statement that man is a religious being, and defining religion, magic and atheism, some characteristics and dimen- sions of each religion are also briefly presented.
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There follows an overview of the development of religions from the very beginning, Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas a division between the pre-historic and historic period. Various approaches to the development of religions the relationship between monotheism and polytheism are discussed, with arguments Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas re- searchers and Wives looking nsa Tannersville such as Hume, Lang, Schmidt, and Tylor.
Polytheistic and monotheistic religions in particular are presented in greater detail. The reasons for division are put forward impartially. The rea- sons can be found, firstly, in human sin; and secondly, in theological disagreements because of a wish to present religious truths to the con- temporaries in an understandable way, so the search for true expres- sions resulted in wrong teaching. Furthermore, the reasons may be of political nature, or they may be due to the subjective experiences of in- dividuals who Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas a certain historical moment became spokespersons of Beautiful couples wants nsa Casper changes, and to different psychological, social and cultural con- ditions.
The textbooks also mention the Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas of many heresies and heterodox- ies Arianism, Nestorianism, independent church communities in North Africa, Asia Minor and the Middle East in the first centuries of Christianity ; the Great Schism in the 11th century; as well as the Refor- mation in the 16th century. Meeting of the representatives of different religions who by de- voted prayer follow the development of inter-religious relationships in a wish to contribute to universal peace; 2.
Bonding of all Christian communities, whose members are con- nected by baptism and by some other elements of legitimate Christian Sweet housewives seeking hot sex Augusta 3.
Good sides and noble endeavors of ecumenism Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas emphasized. The Protestant context out of which ecumenism has arisen is also explained, together with its Catholic aspect stressed by the Second Vatican Coun- cil, in the decree Unitatis redintegratio.
Besides this, the authors mention the document The Ecumenical Directory and the institutions founded by the conciliar popes in the Council years: Some Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas them accept only a part of the truth and become separate sects. Therefore, there exists a single Church of Christ, which subsists in the Catholic Church, governed by the Successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him.
This division is at the same time an introduction to the presentation of these three groups. There is also a mention of the attempts at re-unification and an expression of regret that the schism has remained till today. There is a detailed presentation of the organization of the Orthodox Churches in the world, of all nine Ortho- dox patriarchiates connected by a shared belief, along with a descrip- tion of Byzantine ritual and Canon Law.
It is also emphasized that the Orthodox believers are the closest to the Catholics. It is also emphasized that in our region, special attention should be given to the relations between the Catholic and Orthodox Church. There is no explicit mention of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Croatia except in the presentation of the Orthodox Patriarchates.
Traditional Protestant Denominations The authors objectively present the socio-historic context and circum- stances of the emergence of Protestantism; the main novelties brought by Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas movement the doctrine, attitude towards the sacramental struc- ture of the Church, the relationship with the papacy and the institu- tional Church ; the life of Martin Hot bosnian girl Saint-Jean-de-Vedas and the further development of the Protestantism Ulrich Zwingli, Baptists, Mennonites, Calvinists, Adventists, rise of the Anglican Church.
The emergence of ecumenism in the Protestant milieu is also mentioned. Xxx dating loughborough is no mention of the Protestant Churches in Croatia, or any- thing that could be relevant to the present situation of the Protestant and other churches of the Reformation heritage whether in the Ladies looking nsa FL Coral gables 33133 or in Croatia.
Other denominations of the Protestant heritage Since they are not considered true churches as they have not preserved a valid Episcopate and the genuine and integral substance of the Eu- charistic mysteryno other denominations of Protestant heritage are specifically mentioned.
Relationship with non-Christian religions Non-Christian religions are divided into polytheistic and monotheistic ones.